Scott Morrison says he will fight back against discrimination and mockery of Christians and other religious groups, The Canberra Times reports.
The comments position him as one of the leading religious conservatives in the Turnbull Government.
Mr Morrison also promised to play a leading role next year in the debate about enshrining further "protections" for religious freedom in law, which will be informed by a review being led by former attorney-general Philip Ruddock.
The Treasurer said he had made a conscious decision to "call out" discrimination and to stand up for people of faith.
Aside from his maiden speech a decade ago, in which spoke openly about the importance of his deep personal faith, Mr Morrison has rarely discussed his religious views in public life.
He said "it all starts when you allow religious freedoms [to be eroded], mockery to be made of your faith or your religious festivals – it always starts innocently and it's always said it is just a joke – just like most discrimination does".
"And I'm just gonna call that out. With what I've seen happen in the last year, I've just taken the decision more recently, I'm just not going to put up with that any more, I don't think my colleagues are either.
"Where I think people are being offensive to religion in this country – whichever religion that might be, but particularly the one I and many other Christians subscribe to – well, we will just call it out and we will demand the same respect that people should provide to all religions."
On the Ruddock review of protections for religious freedoms, which will be finalised in March 2018, Mr Morrison said he would "play a role in that process as a senior member of government".
The Sydney MP also opened up about what it meant to receive the thanks of Christian groups, such as at a recent meeting with Maronite Bishop Antoine-Charbel Tarabay, "who were pleased someone stood up for them, and spoke with them, and understood their point, and didn't forsake them".